Comprehensive genomic profiling
If you are wondering why:
“Why do cancer patients even with same cancer type receive the different treatments?”
“I have just diagnosed with cancer, how do I know which targeted therapy is suitable for me?”
Here you will understand why comprehensive genomic profiling will provide the answer for you
Cancer occurs due to mutations affecting the way your cells work and grow1-3
DNA contains the information needed for your body to work correctly5-6
Sometimes an error can occur in the DNA . These errors are called mutations4,6,7
Mutations may affect the way your cells work and grow. These cells can grow uncontrollably and eventually become cancer cells6,
Each person’s cancer is unique because DNA mutations differ among individuals8,9 Even if you have the same type of cancer as someone else, your DNA mutations may differ, and you may need different treatment 10-12
To find out what mutations you may have in your DNA, your care team will take a look into your cancer using a technique called a biopsy13
Knowing the mutations in your cancer can help you and your doctor understand your treatment options, thereby personalizing your treatment8,9,15-17
What are the different types of cancer treatment?
There are several different treatment options, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy.18
Targeted therapies have been developed that are able to target cancer cells with specific DNA mutations. These are different from non-targeted therapies, such as chemotherapies, which do not specifically target cancer cells and may also kill fast-growing healthy cells.19,20 If a tumour has a specific mutations , targeted therapies may be used against this biomarker.
By taking a look into your cancer DNA mutations, your doctor can consider this information for identifying the most appropriate treatment approach for your cancer.
There are several different types of genomic testing, which include single biomarker testing, hotspot testing and comprehensive genomic profiling
They all test your cancer sample for DNA mutations, but work in different ways:
1. Single biomarker testing or hotspot testing
only look for predefined (common) individual mutations within limited regions on your cancer cells’ DNA.
These mutations are always chosen before testing starts. So, if you do not choose to look for a mutation you will not find it.24,25
2. Comprehensive genomic profiling
Provides a more complete picture of your cancer by searching for multiple mutations across a broad region of your cancer cells' DNA.
Comprehensive genomic profiling looks at all potential mutations that may drive your cancer, even if these are very rare, in a single test.
This increases your chances of finding important mutations right away regardless whether they are
common or uncommon.
This may also increase the chance of finding a more precise treatment for you.21-23
Foundation Medicine offers a high-quality portfolio of comprehensive genomic profiling services21,26-28
Which Foundation Medicine service may be suitable for you?
Foundation Medicine offers comprehensive genomic profiling services that can help you and your doctor better understand your treatment options.
There are different tests available for patients with different types of cancer.
- FoundationOne CDx and FoundationOne Liquid are for patients with all types of solid tumours, e.g. lung or breast cancer.26,27.
- FounationOne Heme is for patients with sarcoma or hematologic malignancy28
FoundationOne®Liquid can be beneficial when taking a sample of tissue from your cancer (a tissue biopsy) is not possible or when a cancer tissue sample that has already been taken is not suitable for analysis27,29
Your sample is sent to the Foundation Medicine laboratory where it is analysed by a team of experts
Foundation Medicine’s comprehensive genomic profiling services help open up treatment possibilities for your cancer21,26-27,29
FoundationOne®CDx searches for multiple mutations in your cancer tissue sample to increase your chances of finding a more precise treatment and help personalise your cancer treatment plan17,21,26,30-31
Even if you’ve already had a different test it might be beneficial to test again as FoundationOne®CDx can find mutations that other tests miss17,21,26,30-31
Don't get LOST in your cancer journey, ASK for Foundation Medicine
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2. American Cancer Society Glossary. Mutations. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/content/cancer/en/cancer/glossary.html?term=mutation (Accessed January 2019);
3. Cancer Research UK. How cancer can spread. Available at: https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/what-is-cancer/how-cancer-can-spread (Accessed January 2019).
4. American Cancer Society Glossary. Mutations. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/content/cancer/en/cancer/glossary.html?term=mutation (Accessed January 2019);
5. American Cancer Society Glossary. Deoxyribonucleic acid. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/content/cancer/en/cancer/glossary.html?term=deoxyribonucleic+acid (Accessed January 2019);
6. Cancer Research UK. How cancer starts. Available at: https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/what-is-cancer/how-cancer-starts (Accessed January 2019);
7. American Cancer Society Glossary. DNA repair. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/content/cancer/en/cancer/glossary.html?term=DNA+repair (Accessed January 2019);
8. Baumgart M et al. Am J Hematol Oncol 2015; 11: 10–13
9. Schwaederle M, Kurzrock R. Oncoscience 2015; 2: 779–780
10. Heim D et al. Int J Cancer 2014; 135: 2362–2369
11. Baumgart M et al. Am J Hematol Oncol 2015: 11: 10–13
12. Schwaederle M, Kurzrock R. Oncoscience 2015; 2: 779–780.
13. The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. Biopsy. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/search?contains=false&q=biopsy (Accessed December 2018);
14. Clark TA et al. J Mol Diagn 2018; 20: 686–702.
15. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). Non-small cell lung cancer. V.2.2019, 2018. Available at: https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/recently_updated.aspx (Accessed January 2019)
16. Ohashi K et al. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19: 2584–2591
17. Rozenblum AB et al. J Thorac Oncol 2017; 12: 258–268;
18. National Cancer Institute. Types of cancer treatment. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types (Accessed January 2019)
19. National Cancer Institute. Chemotherapy to treat cancer. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/chemotherapy (Accessed January 2019);
20. Baudino TA et al. Curr Drug Discov Technol 2015; 12: 3–20
21 Frampton GM et al. Nat Biotechnol 2013 ;31: 1023–1031;
22. Dong L et al. Curr Genomics 2015; 16: 253–263;
23. Sicklick JK, et al. Nature Medicine 2019; 25:744–750;
24. Naidoo J, Drilon A. Am J Hematol Oncol 2014: 10: 4–11;
25. Suh JH et al. Oncologist 2016; 21: 684–691;
26. FoundationOne®CDx Technical Specifications, 2018. Available at: www.rochefoundationmedicine.com/f1cdxtech (Accessed January 2019)
27. FoundationOne®Liquid Technical Specifications, 2018. Available at: https://www.foundationmedicine.com/genomic-testing/foundation-one-liquid (Accessed January 2019)
28. FoundationOne®Heme Technical Specifications, 2017. Available at: www.foundationmedicine.com/genomic-testing/foundation-one-heme (Accessed January 2019).
29. Clark TA et al. J Mol Diagn 2018; 20: 686–702
30. Drilon A et al. Clin Cancer Res 2015; 21: 3631–3639
31. Schrock AB et al. Clin Cancer Res 2016; 22: 3281–3285.